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  • Writer's pictureDominick Galauran

Investment Portfolio Management: Definition, Types, and Strategies


Jar with coins with the words investment portfolio with a pen - Investment Portfolio Management: Definition, Types, and Strategies

What is investment portfolio management?


Investment portfolio management is the process of making decisions about investments in order to meet specific investment goals. It involves analyzing an investor's financial needs, constructing a portfolio, monitoring performance, and making changes as needed. Portfolio management strategies can range from simple buy-and-hold strategies to more sophisticated strategies designed to maximize return while minimizing risk. This is an essential part of building up your knowledge of financial planning.


UXWealth, a financial technology (fintech) company uses for their investment portfolio management platform artificial intelligence or AI to better manage their client's portfolios.


What is the objective of portfolio management?


The objective of portfolio management is to create and maintain an individualized plan for investing over the long term in order to meet a person's financial goals. This involves selecting investments that match the investor’s objectives, responsibilities, and risk appetite.


The portfolio manager’s aim is to maximize the investments’ expected return while minimizing risk exposure. To achieve this, portfolio managers must consider factors such as asset allocation, diversification, and rebalancing. Additionally, active portfolio management requires strategically buying and selling assets to outperform the market while passive management seeks to match the market’s returns by mimicking an index or indexes.


Ultimately, portfolio management is a cohesive strategy that is tailored to the specific goals, timeline, and risk tolerance of each investor.


What does an investment portfolio manager do?

Investment Portfolio Manager with the investor using the PC - What does an investment portfolio manager do?

An investment portfolio manager is a professional who helps clients manage their investments by creating and overseeing a selection of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cash. The manager's goal is to maximize the investments' expected to return within an appropriate level of risk exposure. They strive to match the client's long-term financial goals and risk tolerance.


The portfolio manager’s responsibilities include assessing a client’s current financial situation, drawing up a proposed plan to meet the client’s goals, and then buying and monitoring the selected assets. The manager also makes adjustments to the portfolio as needed, and charges a fee for their services based on the client's assets under management.


Portfolio management requires a strategic and thoughtful approach, as the manager must weigh strengths and weaknesses, and make trade-offs between different types of investments. The portfolio manager must also have the ability to choose between active and passive portfolio management. Active portfolio management involves strategically buying and selling stocks and other assets, while passive portfolio management seeks to match the returns of the market.


Individuals may choose to manage their portfolios on their own, but if they would rather be hands-off, they may want to work with a professional portfolio manager. In this case, it's important to look for credentials such as a registered investment advisor or certified financial planner, as these professionals have a high level of education and are held to a fiduciary duty. Make sure to also check also your investment advisor's public disclosures or IAPD to make sure that you will not have any conflicts of interest or any unwanted associations.


Is portfolio management the same as investment management?


Portfolio management and investment management are two distinct concepts, though they share some similarities. Both involve buying and selling assets, assessing risk and return, and aiming to maximize returns. However, portfolio management focuses on building and overseeing a selection of assets that meet an investor's long-term goals and risk tolerance, while investment management involves actively trading stocks and other assets in order to beat the market.


Portfolio management can be done either with a professional or by an individual, while investment management is typically handled by a professional licensed portfolio manager. Additionally, portfolio management involves the ability to weigh strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats across the full spectrum of investments, while investment management is more focused on actively trading individual stocks and securities.


Types of investment portfolio management strategies


Paper with charts and graphs - Types of investment portfolio management strategies

1. Asset Allocation


Asset allocation is the process of diversifying an investment portfolio across different types of assets in order to reduce risk and maximize return potential. This is done by spreading the investor's money across a variety of different asset classes such as stocks, bonds, cash, real estate, commodities, currencies, and cryptocurrency. The mix of these asset classes is based on the understanding that different types of assets do not move in concert, and some are more volatile than others.


A well-allocated portfolio, therefore, helps protect against risk and opens new opportunities while keeping the portfolio in line with its original risk/return profile. This, in turn, allows the portfolio manager to capitalize on global investment opportunities and helps the investor achieve their financial goals.


2. Active Management


Active portfolio management is an investment strategy that involves attempting to outperform an index by actively buying and selling individual stocks and other assets. It is different from passive management, which seeks to match the returns of the market by mimicking the makeup of an index or index. Active management requires strategically buying and selling stocks and other assets in an effort to beat the performance of the broader market. In contrast, passive management is a set-it-and-forget-it long-term strategy that may involve investing in one or more exchange-traded (ETF) index funds. While passive portfolio management rightly has its supporters, an active, flexible approach may offer more potential for returns if investors have the discipline to stay the course.


3. Passive Management


Passive management is an investment portfolio strategy that seeks to replicate the return of a particular market index or benchmark. Rather than actively select the assets to be bought and sold, a passive manager will buy the same stocks that are listed on the index, using the same weighting that they represent in the index. This is commonly referred to as indexing or index investing and involves investing in one or more exchange-traded (ETF) index funds.


The management fees assessed on passive portfolios or funds are typically far lower than those associated with active management strategies. Active management, on the other hand, involves attempting to beat the performance of an index by actively buying and selling individual stocks and other assets. The manager may use any of a wide range of quantitative or qualitative models to aid in their evaluations of potential investments.


Passive management requires discipline to endure the ups and downs of the market, but active management takes this a step further, providing an asset allocation that is tailored to the investor's goals. An active manager can better ensure that the portfolio is positioned to help the investor reach their financial goals.


4. Customized Portfolios


A customized portfolio is an investment portfolio tailored to the individual investor's specific financial goals, preferences, and risk tolerance. It is different from other investment portfolios because it is designed to meet the individual's needs and goals, rather than adhering to a "one size fits all" approach. This type of portfolio typically takes into account the investor's current portfolio and financial situation, as well as their long-term goals. The portfolio is then strategically constructed to maximize returns and reduce risk. It is often managed with a tactical approach, meaning it is regularly modified and adjusted to react to changing market conditions.


This flexibility allows the portfolio to be actively managed and to capitalize on global opportunities. In contrast, traditional portfolios tend to be static and may not take advantage of global opportunities or react to changing market conditions.


5. Hedge Funds


A hedge fund is an alternative investment portfolio that uses a variety of strategies to generate returns that are not correlated to the stock market. Hedge funds are typically managed by professional investors and are designed to deliver superior returns, while also reducing the overall risk of the portfolio. Hedge funds focus on a wide array of asset classes, including stocks, bonds, currencies, commodities, derivatives, real estate, and alternative investments.


Hedge funds differ from other investment portfolio management strategies in that they use a variety of techniques to achieve their goals, such as leveraging, short selling, and arbitrage. Leverage is the use of borrowed money to increase returns, while short selling involves selling stocks that have not been purchased in order to take advantage of a decline in price. Arbitrage involves taking advantage of price discrepancies between two different markets. Hedge funds also may not be limited to investing in publicly traded securities and may instead invest in private placements, private equity, and venture capital.


In comparison to other portfolio management strategies, hedge funds provide more flexibility and the potential for higher returns, but may also be riskier investments. As such, hedge funds are often reserved for investors who are looking to pursue higher returns with a greater degree of risk.


6. Commodities


A commodities investment portfolio management strategy typically involves diversifying investments across a range of asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, cash, commodities, real estate, and derivatives. The strategy aims to balance risk and reward, providing investors with a more nimble and broadly diversified portfolio. The strategy may also incorporate alternative investments such as cryptocurrencies. The goal of the strategy is to provide the investor with a lower risk, a steady stream of income, and the potential for higher returns over the long term. Rebalancing is often used to capture recent gains and open new opportunities while keeping the portfolio in line with its original risk/return profile. In order to maximize returns and minimize risk, it is important to research and select the most suitable investments for the portfolio.


7. Trading Platforms


Trading platforms provide users with data and analytics, portfolio management systems, financial planning integration, performance reporting, trade order management, margin and finance management, portfolio accounting and reporting, customizable dashboards for financial reporting and summary data, financial analytics modules, investment portfolio optimization, regulatory compliance management, and compliance reporting. Additionally, these platforms typically have features including client communication, client management, client/board portals, fund accounting, cash management, approval workflows, and more.


8. Options


The options for investment portfolio management include accounting and tax services providers, banking software, financial risk management software, financial services CRM systems, investor relations software, online trading systems, and platforms, stock option plan administration software, financial research platforms, active portfolio management strategies, and passive portfolio management strategies. Additionally, individuals who are interested in investing should consider starting now and should be aware of the benefits of defined contribution and defined benefit pension plans, as well as the differences between mutual funds and other pooled investment products.


9. Bonds


Bonds are an important part of an investment portfolio as they offer a way to attain stable, lower-risk returns. Bonds are essentially loans made to a corporation or government in exchange for regular interest payments, with the issuer agreeing to pay back the loan by a specified date. Bonds can be traded on the secondary market, allowing investors to diversify their portfolios and gain exposure to a variety of opportunities. By investing in bonds, investors can take advantage of the lower risk associated with these investments, while also seeking out potential returns.


10. Equities


Equities, or stocks, are a type of investment portfolio management strategy that represents a proportional ownership stake in a corporation's assets and profits. When investing in equities, investors are looking to buy a share in a company and become a shareholder. This type of investment is often seen as more appropriate for long-term investing, as it can ride out the highs and lows of the market in search of higher rewards. The key characteristics of equities as an investment portfolio management strategy include:

  1. Proportional ownership stake in a company’s assets and profits

  2. Long-term investing in search of higher rewards

  3. Ability to ride out the highs and lows of the market

  4. Potential for higher returns

  5. Potential for diversification of portfolio

  6. Exposure to a broad range of investments, based on factors such as supply and demand

  7. Access to diverse investments such as growth stocks, blue-chip stocks, and global markets

  8. Rebalancing opportunities for capturing recent gains and opening up new investment opportunities

  9. Ability to provide protection against risk through a balanced portfolio of assets.

Benefits of investment portfolio management


1. Better understanding of the investments and their risks


Investment portfolio management can help individuals better understand the risks associated with their investments by guiding them through the process of setting goals, determining the amount of help they need, mapping out a timeline, and assessing their risk tolerance. By understanding the different asset classes and their potential rewards and risks, investors can have a better understanding of how their portfolio is performing and how it may need to be adjusted to align with their goals and risk profile. By having a detailed plan in place and adhering to it, investors can maintain perspective and long-term discipline, helping them to stay focused on their goals and avoid getting caught up in market volatility and distractions.


2. Ability to track and monitor investments


Investment portfolio management software helps investors keep track of their investments and monitor their performance by providing a unified platform for storing portfolio information. It aggregates all important data in one place, including 401(k) plans, savings accounts, mutual and exchange-traded funds, individual stocks, bonds, and IRAs, and allows investors to view performance metrics across all their investments. Additionally, it automates certain tasks such as transferring funds, placing orders, and providing current market analysis breakdowns, making the tracking and monitoring process easier and more efficient.


Furthermore, it includes useful accounting and reporting features such as personal finance, budgeting, and goal-setting sheets, which allows investors to better keep track of their investments and make more informed decisions.


In short, investment portfolio management software makes it easier to track and monitor investments, allowing investors to make better decisions and improve their overall portfolio performance.


3. Increased probability of achieving investment goals


Investment portfolio management helps achieve investment goals by ensuring that an investor’s portfolio is composed of investments that are aligned with their goals, timeline, risk tolerance, and amount of help desired. Through portfolio management, investors can choose a diversified mix of investments that is appropriate for their long-term goals and make adjustments as needed to ensure their account remains in alignment with their strategy and plan. Additionally, portfolio management can help investors realize greater returns by taking on more risk, but also allowing them to maintain perspective and long-term discipline.


4. Ability to customize a portfolio to meet needs and risk tolerance


Investment portfolio management helps customize a portfolio to meet an investor's needs and risk tolerance by taking into account four main factors. Firstly, the investor's goals, such as retirement, a home renovation, a child's education, or a family vacation, determine how much money needs to be saved and what type of investing strategy and account type is most appropriate for achieving the objectives. Secondly, the investor's preferences must be considered when deciding if they prefer to choose all investments themselves, or if they would rather have a portfolio manager take over. Thirdly, the timeline for needing the money from the investments must be mapped, as it will inform how aggressive or conservative the investing strategy needs to be.


Finally, the investor's tolerance for risk is another key factor for diversification decisions. By taking all these factors into account, investment portfolio management can help customize a portfolio to meet the individual needs and risk tolerance of the investor.


5. Increased Return on Investment


Investment portfolio management software is designed to help investors maximize their return on investment by providing analytical tools, budgeting features, and automated notifications. The software can help investors identify potential investment opportunities and make informed decisions about the best ways to allocate their resources. It also allows users to track the performance of their investments, monitor fees, and adjust their portfolios in response to changes in the market. Additionally, the software can help investors reduce their tax burden by utilizing techniques like tax-loss harvesting and other tax-smart investing strategies. By taking advantage of all of these features, investors can increase their return on investment while also reducing risks.


6. Reduced Volatility


Investment portfolio management helps reduce volatility by building a diversified portfolio that emphasizes defensive investments. This type of portfolio is designed to mitigate market swings and provide more stable investment returns over time. Balance and protection against risk are achieved by allocating assets based on the understanding that different types of assets do not move in concert, with some being more volatile than others. A mix of stocks, bonds, cash equivalents, and other alternative investments helps to reduce the overall risk of the portfolio. Furthermore, rebalancing captures recent gains and opens up new opportunities while keeping the portfolio in line with its original risk/return profile.


7. Increased Consistency


Investment portfolio management helps increase consistency by providing financial advisors and investors with access to streamlined administrative processes, investment research, custom-branded reports, and a client management portal and app. This allows investors to make critical decisions on the go while giving them convenient access to their accounts. Additionally, an investment portfolio management approach that emphasizes defensive investments, like conservative stocks and high-quality bonds, can help temper market swings and provide more stable investment returns over time.


8. Improved Focus and Clarity


How does investment portfolio management improve focus and clarity? [Argumentation]

Investment portfolio management can help improve focus and clarity by providing guidance and education to investors to make informed decisions about their financial future. Through portfolio management, investors can identify their financial goals, and create a plan to reach those goals. By monitoring their risk levels, regularly investing, and rebalancing their portfolio, investors can stay one step ahead and keep their portfolios aligned with their financial plans. Additionally, investors can track their performance and stay informed of any changes in the market. This allows them to make smart decisions and remain disciplined in the long term, helping to improve their financial clarity and focus.


9. Increased Knowledge and Understanding


Investment portfolio management can help increase knowledge and understanding by providing investors with new financial planning tools and techniques for creating profitable portfolios, critically evaluating investment managers, accounting for financial risk, understanding stock market reactions to events, gaining a macroeconomic outlook, and exploring powerful tools to help meet their clients' needs. Through courses and hands-on projects, investors can earn a Certificate to showcase their newfound expertise, which they can then share with prospective employers and their professional network. Furthermore, ongoing conversations with their Investment Counselor can help them stay up to date on their portfolio and needs.


10. Improved Liquidity and Accessibility


Investment portfolio management improves liquidity and accessibility by helping investors deal with analyses and operations on their assets. It enables investors to create a more nimble and broadly diversified portfolio by combining different types of assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, cash, and commodities. By weighting the portfolio toward different assets, an investor can balance the risk and returns of the portfolio and capture recent gains while keeping the original risk/return profile. Rebalancing also opens new opportunities and can help protect against risk.



Types of investment portfolio management strategies


Final Thoughts


Investment portfolio management is a complex task that requires careful planning and execution. This guide will teach you about the different types of investment portfolio management, their objectives, and the strategies used to achieve them. You'll also learn about the importance of hedging and options trading, as well as how increased consistency and knowledge can improve your odds of success. By understanding these concepts, you'll be able to make informed decisions when choosing an investment strategy for your future goals.


AI or Artificial Intelligence now is being used with Portfolio Management by financial tech companies such as UXWealth, to have a deeper understanding and more scientific approach to portfolio management to minimize risks, and maximize investments.


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